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Prayer / What is the criterion for superiority between people?

What is the criterion for superiority between people?

date de publication : 2014-04-03 | Vues : 2162
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What is the criterion for superiority between people? ما هو ضابط التفاضل بين الناس؟

Praise be to Allah, and may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allah, his family and his companions.

As to what follows:

In response to your question, we say, and with Allah Almighty lies all success:

 There is no doubt that Allah has made superiority between people based on taqwa and iman. And so Allah Almighty said:

“O mankind, indeed We have created you from male and female and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is he who has the most taqwa. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted.” [Al-Hujurat 13:49]

And the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “And whoever is slowed down by his actions, will not be hastened forward by his lineage.” [Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi]

 So whoever has more taqwa and worship of Allah Almighty is more noble and of a higher status in the sight of Allah Almighty. But that does not mean that there is no superiority between people except by this. For there is no doubt that there are certain standards that cause some people to be more superior besides having more taqwa. And so the majority of the scholars (may Allah have mercy on them) are of the view that the Arabs as a whole are better than non-Arabs and that the Quraysh as a whole are better than non-Qurayshis. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (may Allah have mercy on him) said, “A group of scholars were of the view that there is no superiority between these categories of people. This is the view held by a group among Ahl al-Kalam, such as Qadhi Abu Bakr bin al-Tayyib and others. It is also what has been mentioned by Qadhi Abu Ya`la in al-Mu`tamad. This view is referred to as the Doctrine of Populism, and it is a weak view from the views of the people of bid`ah.”

The evidences of the superiority of Quraysh over the rest of the tribes are numerous. Among them is what has been reported by Muslim, “Indeed Allah has chosen Kinanah from the children of Isma`il, and He chose the Quraysh from Kinanah, and He chose Banu Hashim from Quraysh, and He chose me from Banu Hashim.” This also proves that some tribes and nations are more superior than others, and there is nothing wrong with that. Allah Almighty said:

“And your Lord creates what He wills and chooses; not for them was the choice.” [Al-Qasas 28:68]

So Allah Almighty prefers and chooses some categories of people and gives them a certain distinctive feature over others, as is the case with certain times and places. That is the bounty of Allah which He bestows on whom He wills.

It remains for us to clarify that this categorical superiority does not have anything to do with nobility and status in the sight of Allah Almighty, rather the most noble of people in the sight of Allah is he who has the most taqwa, and the best of them is he who is the most obedient and fearful of Allah, as the Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “And whoever is slowed down by his actions, will not be hastened forward by his lineage.” [Abu Dawud and Tirmidhi]

And Allah said:

“Indeed, the most noble of you in the sight of Allah is he who has the most taqwa.” [Al-Hujurat 13:49]

As for the condition of the Khalifah and Imam being a Qurayshi, then it is the view of the majority of the scholars of the past and present, rather unanimous agreement on it has been cited, and it is the view of the Four Imams (may Allah have mercy on them). Its evidences are many. Among them is the hadith reported by Bukhari and Muslim on the authority of Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him), who said that the Messenger of Allah 9peace be upon him) said, “The people follow Quraysh in this regard [i.e authority of ruling]. The Muslims follow the Muslims amongst them, and the disbelievers follow the disbelievers amongst them.” Among them is also what has been narrated by Ibn `Umar (may Allah be pleased with them both) from the Prophet (peace be upon him), “Authority of ruling will remain with Quraysh, even if only two people are left [on earth].”

Moreover, none opposed this except for the people of bid`ah, such as the Khawarij and Mu`tazilah.

Also, there is no contradiction in this with what has preceded, in that superiority between people is by taqwa, as this preference of Quraysh over other tribes has its justifications that can be sought. Among that, for example, is that this tribe is the best of tribes and good has been combined in it, which is proven by Allah Almighty’s selection of it as has been proven by the aforementioned hadith. Among the reasons and wisdoms of this selection is what Abu Bakr (may Allah be pleased with him) mentioned to the Ansar when they wanted the Khilafah after the Prophet (peace be upon him), “The Arabs do not follow other than this branch of Quraysh.”

Whatever the case may be, it is obligatory upon us to surrender to Allah and His Messenger. Allah Almighty said:

“The only statement of the true believers, when they are called to Allah and His Messenger to judge between them, is that they say, ‘We hear and we obey.’ And such are the successful.” [Al-Nur 24:51]

 That is the bounty of Allah which He bestows on whom He wills, and Allah is the possessor of great bounty.

Finally, one should realize that this specification, even if many people consider it noble and bountiful, the Islamic perspective is contrary to this. For leadership will be a cause of remorse on the Day of Resurrection. The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, “You will be keen for leadership, but it will be a cause of remorse on the Day of Resurrection.” [Bukhari]

 And he (peace be upon him) also said, “It [i.e. leadership] is a trust,and it will be a cause of disgrace and remorse on the Day of Resurrection, except for the one who takes it up with a full sense of responsibility and fulfills what is entrusted to him.” [Muslim]

 

 

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