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Hadith and its sciences / Sixteen issues in the science of hadith

Sixteen issues in the science of hadith

date de publication : 2014-09-20 | Vues : 1833
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Dear respected Shaykh, assalamu alaikum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh. What is the meaning of the scholars’ statement when they want to strengthen a hadith based on the ways it was narrated from and they say, “The hadith has paths which strengthen each other”. Is this considered to be authenticating a hadith or it is grading it as sound? How is the main path of the hadith considered when a hadith is strengthened based on the multiple paths that it was narrated from? When the early hadith scholars differ on the grade of a hadith, whereby some of them regard it as authentic and some of them regard it as weak which opinion should we take? Is there a difference between these scholars’ statements: “they agreed upon it”, “they were unanimous” and “there is no difference of opinion on it?” When is it permissible to quote the scholars consensus? What is the ruling of acting according to a saying of the Sahabi or his action? Is it a proof or not? What is the difference between the following words “So and so gave preponderancy to this opinion”, “so and so chose this opinion,” “this was so and so’s opinion,” “so and so was inclined to this opinion,” “so and so was predisposed to this opinion”, and “so and so advocated for this opinion?” Is there a difference between these words, “The proofs for this opinion are such and such,” and “the evidences for this opinion are such and such?” What do the scholars mean by their statement , “So and so established such and such a thing?” Does this mean that he clarified it or mentioned it? The scholars say, “So and so said this and he was followed by so and so?” How do we know that so and so followed the opinion of another scholar and did not reach his own opinion through independent reasoning? The scholars say, “The well-versed scholars said”. Who are the well-versed scholars? Is there a difference between these words: “That is the end in brief”, “that is the end and the quoted words have been modified?” The scholars say, “it has been established by the scholars of hadith or the scholars of usool al-fiqh?” What is the meaning of their statement “it has been established”. Is there a difference between the statement of the scholars, “this is divided into two sections,” and their statement, “this is of two types”. What is the meaning of the statement of the scholars: “this hadith is defective?” Does it mean weak? What is the meaning of the statement of the scholars that so and so was criticized, or “statements were made about him?” ستة عشر مسألة في علم الحديث

Praise be to Allah, and may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon the Messenger of Allah, his family and his companions. Wa alaikum assalam wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh. As to what follows: In response to your question, we say:   Answer  1: This may be authenticating a hadith or grading it as sound. This differs according to the difference in the ways of transmission of the hadiths  in terms of abundance and strength. Answer 2:  That is known by experience and differs according to the hadiths Answer 3: It is imperative to look into the proof of the scholars who graded the hadith as weak and those who graded it as authentic  to rule as to which of the two opinions should be followed. As for the difference of opinion between the early scholars and later scholars; it is imperative to closely study the opinions of the scholars of hadith criticism before choosing other opinions over it. Answer 4: This words are close in meaning, and there are few differences between them. The weakest of these phrases in quoting a consensus is saying, “There is no difference of opinion of this.” Answer 5: The orderly consensus is that which the Sahaba (may Allah be pleased with them) were upon because those who came after them were many and  the ummah stayed in different places such that those who quoted the consensus of the scholars after the time of the Sahaba do not know have access to all the opinions of the scholars of a particular time. This why Imam Ahmad said, “Whoever claims that the scholars had a consensus is lying, maybe the scholars differed. How will he know that when he was not  privy of those details?” That is why if you ponder on many issues on which a consensus was quoted you will find that the scholars differed on those issues. Answer 6: The scholars differed about the opinion of a Sahabi. In short an opinion of a Sahabi which was famous and widespread and was not opposed is an authoritative source of evidence according to most of the scholars. However, the issues that the Sahaba differed about should be decided by the Qur’an and Sunnah.  Thus if the Sahaba differed, the opinion of some of them was not an authoritative source to the others. This is a point of agreement. There is a difference of opinion among the scholars about the issues in which the Sahaba had opinions but it is not known whether  the scholars differed. According to the majority of the scholars from the Hanafite, Malikites, Hambalites and some Shafi’tes, this opinion from the Sahaba will be an authoritative  source of evidence. This is the correct opinion. And Allah knows best. Answer 7: This statements are close in meaning and in indicating the preponderance of one statement over another. However, these statements differ in the degree of preponderance. The statement of the scholars, “He was inclined to this opinion,” is of a lower degree of preponderance than the statement of the scholars “he supported the opinion,” which indicates that he adopted it, collected evidences, and answered the proofs of the opposing scholars. Answer 8: What is apparent is that there is no difference of opinion between these two things. Answer 9:  The meaning of that could be to clarify or mention, but is usually used to mention an opinion in terms of selection and preponderancy. Answer 10: That is known through  a number of ways like referring  to what the scholar wrote or his fatwas so that his opinion can be known. The statement that a scholar followed the opinion of so and so does not mean that this was not a result of independent reasoning.   Answer  11: The well-versed scholars are those who are famous for having an interest in scrutinizing evidence, debating it, and answering issues arising from that. They are also known for not just mentioning opinions without evidence. Answer 12: Yes there is a difference between these two statements.  The statement of the scholars: “This is the end in short”, is quoting and leaving some statements. As for the statement; “This is the end with some modification in the text” , the modification involved could be summarizing, or it could be paraphrasing the text. Answer 13: the word established means that an opinion has become popular, and has been adopted by most scholars such that it has become like a thing that is agreed upon between them. Answer 14:   There is no difference. Answer 15: Yes, a defective hadith is part of the weak hadiths because it has a defect either in its chain of narrators or text. Mostly defects are in the chain of narrators. Answer 16:  This means that in the chain of narrators of the hadith there is a narrator whom the scholars criticized for his weakness, whilst other regarded him to be an authentic narrator.   May Allah’s peace and mercy be upon you.

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